Just a couple of quick notes.
- For those of you at all familiar with German, the pronunication of (ㄩ) sounds very much like an "umlaut". It is as though you were trying to pronounce the sound "ew" after having eaten something very sour.
- The pronunciations for (ㄝ) and (ㄟ) are both the sound of letter "a". The sole difference to my ears is that (ㄝ) is a shorter, sharper version while (ㄟ) is slightly more drawn out.
So, that is Chinese pronunication and bo-po-mo-fo in a nutshell (a very small nutshell!). Botttom line, listen to and speak the language as often as possible with native speakers. You will learn it eventually.